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What is germanium powder?

Views: 1     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-08-10      Origin: Site

Germanium powder properties

Silver-white brittle metal.

Melting point 925~975℃;

Boiling point 2700℃;

Soluble in aqua regia, concentrated nitric acid or sulfuric acid, molten alkali, nitrate or carbonate, insoluble in water, hydrochloric acid, dilute caustic alkali solution. Not oxidized in air. Its fine powder can burn in chlorine or bromine. Germanium is chemically stable and does not interact with air or water vapor at room temperature. Since germanium does not work with carbon, it is usually melted in a graphite crucible. It has good semiconductor properties.

Chemical Formula: Ge

CAS No.: 7440-56-4

EINECS No.: 231-164-3

Crystal: Irregular

Molar Mass: 72.64g/mol

Particle Size: 200nm 100-mesh, 200-mesh, 325-mesh Nano-micron-level

Purity: ≥ 99.9% 99.99% 99.999%

Color: Black

The production method of germanium powder can be obtained by reducing germanium dioxide with carbon and then smelting.

Germanium telluride application

High-purity germanium is a semiconductor material used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices. The germanium single crystal doped with a small amount of specific impurities can be used to make various transistors, rectifiers and other devices. High-purity germanium single crystal has a high refractive index. It is transparent to infrared rays and does not transmit visible light and infrared rays. And it can be used as a prism or lens that transmits infrared light. Germanium compounds are used in the manufacture of phosphor plates and various high-refractive-index glasses. Also used in radiation detectors and pyroelectric materials.

According to the United States Geological Survey (2015), the proportion of global germanium end users is as follows: fiber optical fiber 30%; infrared fiber 20%; polymerization catalyst 20%; electronic and solar devices 15% and other (phosphor, metallurgy, and chemotherapy) ) 15%.

Optical fiber germanium-doped fiber has excellent characteristics such as large capacity, small light loss, low dispersion, long transmission distance and no environmental interference. In recent years, it has developed rapidly in high-speed optical fiber networks, links, optical fiber sensors, optical fiber guidance and optical fiber tethering devices. As an infrared optical material, germanium has the advantages of high infrared refractive index, wide infrared transmission band range, small absorption coefficient, low dispersion rate, easy processing, flash and corrosion, etc. 

It is especially suitable for thermal imaging in military industry and major civil applications. Materials for windows, lenses, prisms and filters of instruments and infrared radars and other infrared optical devices; high-purity germanium or germanium lithium used in astronomy γ-spectrometers, nuclear reaction energy spectrometers and plasma physics X-ray instruments; Si -Ge10 and germanium single crystals doped with mercury, cadmium, copper and gallium are used in infrared detectors. 

The potential demand is large, and germanium has been widely used in infrared thermal imaging cameras in the fields of preventive inspection, process control, fire protection, security and night vision. Polymerization catalyst Germanium dioxide (GeO2) is a catalyst for the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). It has long fibers, and various containers for beverages and edible liquids prepared from it are transparent and have good air tightness.

Electronic solar components contain germanium diodes, germanium semiconductor devices are used as diodes, transistors and compound transistors, germanium semiconductor optoelectronic devices are used as sensors for photoelectric, Hall and piezoresistive effects, as radiation detectors for photoconductive effects, etc. They are widely used in color TV, Among computers, telephones and high-frequency equipment, germanium tubes are especially suitable for high-frequency and high-power devices, and operate normally under strong radiation and -40 ° C; Ge-Si and Ge-Te are used for thermoelectric power generation for aerospace, satellite and space stations. start-up power supply, etc. 

The application of germanium in semiconductor devices has been mostly replaced by silicon, and it is only used in high-frequency and high-power devices. Germanium triple-junction solar cells GaAs/Ge solar cells made of germanium as the substrate have similar performance to GaAs/GaAs cells, with higher mechanical strength and larger monolithic cell area. In the space application environment, the radiation resistance threshold is higher than that of silicon cells, and the performance degradation is small. Its application cost is close to that of silicon cells of the same power. It has been used in various types of military satellites and some commercial satellites, and has gradually become the main space power source.

The safety of germanium powder can stimulate the skin, mucous membranes and eyes, and the maximum allowable concentration in the air (calculated as Ge) is 1mg/m3. Production staff should wear work clothes, masks and latex gloves and other labor protection supplies. It should be stored in a cool, ventilated, dry, clean, and chemical-free warehouse. Moisture proof. Do not store and transport together with acid and alkali products. In the process of transportation, it should be rainproof and shockproof. Be careful when loading and unloading to prevent collision and rolling, and prevent mechanical damage.